High-Rise Buildings and Structural Design
It is difficult to define a high-rise building . One may say that a low-rise building ranges from 1 to 2 stories . A medium-rise building probably ranges between 3 or 4 stories up to 10 or 20 stories or more . Although the basic principles of vertical and horizontal subsystem design remain the same for low- , medium- , or high-rise buildings , when a building gets high the vertical subsystems become a controlling problem for two reasons . Higher vertical loads will require larger columns , walls , and shafts . But , more significantly , the overturning moment and the shear deflections produced by lateral forces are much larger and must be carefully provided for .
Key Words：High-Rise Buildings Structural Design Framework Shear Seismic System
The vertical subsystems in a high-rise building transmit accumulated gravity load from story to story , thus requiring larger column or wall sections to support such loading . In addition these same vertical subsystems must transmit lateral loads , such as wind or seismic loads , to the foundations. However , in contrast to vertical load , lateral load effects on buildings are not linear and increase rapidly with increase in height . For example under wind load , the overturning moment at the base of buildings varies approximately as the square of a buildings may vary as the fourth power of buildings height , other things being equal. Earthquake produces an even more pronounced effect.
When the structure for a low-or medium-rise building is designed for dead and live load , it is almost an inherent property that the columns , walls , and stair or elevator shafts can carry most of the horizontal forces . The problem is primarily shear resistance . Moderate addition bracing for rigid frames in“short”buildings can easily be provided by filling certain panels ( or even all panels ) without increasing the sizes of the columns and girders otherwise required for vertical loads.
Unfortunately , this is not is for high-rise buildings because the problem is primarily resistance to moment and deflection rather than shear alone . Special structural arrangements will often have to be made and additional structural material is always required for the columns , girders , walls , and slabs in order to made a high-rise buildings sufficiently resistant to much higher lateral deformations .
As previously mentioned , the quantity of structural material required per square foot of floor of a high-rise buildings is in excess of that required for low-rise buildings . The vertical components carrying the gravity load , such as walls , columns , and shafts , will need to be strengthened over the full height of the buildings . But quantity of material required for resisting lateral forces is even more significant .
With reinforced concrete , the quantity of material also increases as the number of stories increases . But here it should be noted that the increase in the weight of material added for gravity load is much more sizable than steel , whereas for wind load the increase for lateral force resistance is not that much more since the weight of a concrete buildings helps to resist overturn . On the other hand , the problem of design for earthquake forces . Additional mass in the upper floors will give rise to a greater overall lateral force under the of seismic effects .
In the case of either concrete or steel design , there are certain basic principles for providing additional resistance to lateral to lateral forces and deflections in high-rise buildings without too much sacrifire in economy .
Remember that all high-rise buildings are essentially vertical cantilevers which are supported at the ground . When the above principles are judiciously applied , structurally desirable schemes can be obtained by walls , cores , rigid frames, tubular construction , and other vertical subsystems to achieve horizontal strength and rigidity . Some of these applications will now be described in subsequent sections in the following .
- Increase the effective width of the moment-resisting subsystems . This is very useful because increasing the width will cut down the overturn force directly and will reduce deflection by the third power of the width increase , other things remaining cinstant . However , this does require that vertical components of the widened subsystem be suitably connected to actually gain this benefit.
- Design subsystems such that the components are made to interact in the most efficient manner . For example , use truss systems with chords and diagonals efficiently stressed , place reinforcing for walls at critical locations , and optimize stiffness ratios for rigid frames .
- Increase the material in the most effective resisting components . For example , materials added in the lower floors to the flanges of columns and connecting girders will directly decrease the overall deflection and increase the moment resistance without contributing mass in the upper floors where the earthquake problem is aggravated .
- Arrange to have the greater part of vertical loads be carried directly on the primary moment-resisting components . This will help stabilize the buildings against tensile overturning forces by precompressing the major overturn-resisting components .
- The local shear in each story can be best resisted by strategic placement if solid walls or the use of diagonal members in a vertical subsystem . Resisting these shears solely by vertical members in bending is usually less economical , since achieving sufficient bending resistance in the columns and connecting girders will require more material and construction energy than using walls or diagonal members .
- Sufficient horizontal diaphragm action should be provided floor . This will help to bring the various resisting elements to work together instead of separately .
- Create mega-frames by joining large vertical and horizontal components such as two or more elevator shafts at multistory intervals with a heavy floor subsystems , or by use of very deep girder trusses .
When shear walls are compatible with other functional requirements , they can be economically utilized to resist lateral forces in high-rise buildings . For example , apartment buildings naturally require many separation walls . When some of these are designed to be solid , they can act as shear walls to resist lateral forces and to carry the vertical load as well . For buildings up to some 20storise , the use of shear walls is common . If given sufficient length ,such walls can economically resist lateral forces up to 30 to 40 stories or more .
However , shear walls can resist lateral load only the plane of the walls ( i.e.not in a diretion perpendicular to them ) . Therefore ,it is always necessary to provide shear walls in two perpendicular directions can be at least in sufficient orientation so that lateral force in any direction can be resisted . In addition , that wall layout should reflect consideration of any torsional effect .
In design progress , two or more shear walls can be connected to from L-shaped or channel-shaped subsystems . Indeed , internal shear walls can be connected to from a rectangular shaft that will resist lateral forces very efficiently . If all external shear walls are continuously connected , then the whole buildings acts as a tube , and is excellent Shear-Wall Systems resisting lateral loads and torsion .
Whereas concrete shear walls are generally of solid type with openings when necessary , steel shear walls are usually made of trusses . These trusses can have single diagonals , “X”diagonals , or“K”arrangements . A trussed wall will have its members act essentially in direct tension or compression under the action of view , and they offer some opportunity and deflection-limitation point of view , and they offer some opportunity for penetration between members . Of course , the inclined members of trusses must be suitable placed so as not to interfere with requirements for windows and for circulation service penetrations though these walls .
As stated above , the walls of elevator , staircase ,and utility shafts form natural tubes and are commonly employed to resist both vertical and lateral forces . Since these shafts are normally rectangular or circular in cross-section , they can offer an efficient means for resisting moments and shear in all directions due to tube structural action . But a problem in the design of these shafts is provided sufficient strength around door openings and other penetrations through these elements . For reinforced concrete construction , special steel reinforcements are placed around such opening .In steel construction , heavier and more rigid connections are required to resist racking at the openings .
In many high-rise buildings , a combination of walls and shafts can offer excellent resistance to lateral forces when they are suitably located ant connected to one another . It is also desirable that the stiffness offered these subsystems be more-or-less symmertrical in all directions .
In the design of architectural buildings , rigid-frame systems for resisting vertical and lateral loads have long been accepted as an important and standard means for designing building . They are employed for low-and medium means for designing buildings . They are employed for low- and medium up to high-rise building perhaps 70 or 100 stories high . When compared to shear-wall systems , these rigid frames both within and at the outside of a buildings . They also make use of the stiffness in beams and columns that are required for the buildings in any case , but the columns are made stronger when rigidly connected to resist the lateral as well as vertical forces though frame bending .
Frequently , rigid frames will not be as stiff as shear-wall construction , and therefore may produce excessive deflections for the more slender high-rise buildings designs . But because of this flexibility , they are often considered as being more ductile and thus less susceptible to catastrophic earthquake failure when compared with ( some ) shear-wall designs . For example , if over stressing occurs at certain portions of a steel rigid frame ( i.e.,near the joint ) , ductility will allow the structure as a whole to deflect a little more , but it will by no means collapse even under a much larger force than expected on the structure . For this reason , rigid-frame construction is considered by some to be a “best”seismic-resisting type for high-rise steel buildings . On the other hand ,it is also unlikely that a well-designed share-wall system would collapse.
In the case of concrete rigid frames ,there is a divergence of opinion . It true that if a concrete rigid frame is designed in the conventional manner , without special care to produce higher ductility , it will not be able to withstand a catastrophic earthquake that can produce forces several times lerger than the code design earthquake forces . Therefore , some believe that it may not have additional capacity possessed by steel rigid frames . But modern research and experience has indicated that concrete frames can be designed to be ductile , when sufficient stirrups and joinery reinforcement are designed in to the frame . Modern buildings codes have specifications for the so-called ductile concrete frames . However , at present , these codes often require excessive reinforcement at certain points in the frame so as to cause congestion and result in construction difficulties 。Even so , concrete frame design can be both effective and economical 。
Of course , it is also possible to combine rigid-frame construction with shear-wall systems in one buildings 。For example , the buildings geometry may be such that rigid frames can be used in one direction while shear walls may be used in the other direction。
Above states is the high-rise construction ordinariest structural style. In the design process, should the economy practical choose the reasonable form as far as possible.